Acoustic Brain Research

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Tom Kenyon is a researcher, a therapist, a musician, sound healer and teacher. For over twenty years his research group, Acoustic Brain Research, has been a leader in the field of psycho-acoustics and the use of sound and music to access the creative abilities of the brain and mind. The ABR Library has both science and a proven track record behind it and is in use by therapists, clinicians and by laypersons all over the world.

Important Note: ABR tapes are designed for the purpose of education and self-exploration only.


BioPulse Technology™

ABR’s psychoacoustic technology is based on the use of complex tonal matrices in which various sound patterns are mixed to stimulate the brain/mind into more resourceful states. Many of these tones are mixed beneath the level of audible hearing, masked by other sounds, and sometimes music, specifically composed for the desired mental/ emotional state.

Tom Kenyon’s ABR tapes and CDs also take advantage of “BioPulse Technology” in which specific tones, known to affect brain state, are mixed into the tonal matrix. Research indicates that such frequencies can significantly alter awareness.

These primary categories are:

delta (0.5 -–4 HZ). Associated with deep levels of relaxation such as sleep
theta (4 -–8HZ). Associated with tranquil states of awareness in which vivid internal imagery can often occur
alpha (8- 12 HZ). Relaxed nervous system, ideal for stress management, accelerated learning and mental imagery
beta (12-30 HZ). Associated with waking/alert states of awareness k-complex (30 -–35HZ). Clarity and sudden states of integration, the “ah-ha experience”
super high beta (35 -–150 HZ). Psychodynamic states of awareness





An Important Note About Research Documents


The articles, reports, and studies in this section are being shared in the spirit of offering a free-flow of information. They are essentially educational in nature and will hopefully give you a glimpse into the workings of the brain in response to sound and music, as well as an understanding of Acoustic Brain Research (ABR) psychoacoustic technology.

But before you take a look, I feel it is imperative that I discuss some of the basic points regarding scientific research. I do this because, although I am offering the ABR psychoacoustic recordings for sale, I am also a lover of the scientific method. And in case some of you reading this aren't scientists, I feel it obligatory to cover some of the basic principles of scientific research.

There are essentially three types of information in science — Anecdotal reports from individuals, Pilot Studies (sometimes called Anecdotal Studies), and Controlled Studies.

The scientific method requires quantification or a means of measuring. It is this objective standard that is the foundation of all scientific inquiry. Without quantification you do not have science.

The ABR Library of psychoacoustic recordings has been out in the field being used by therapists and laypersons throughout the world, in some cases, as long as twenty-three years (as of 2006). As a result, their usage has generated a large amount of anecdotal reports. We regularly get phone calls, letters and emails from people all over the globe who say that they have been helped by ABR recordings and programs. It is gratifying to see such accolades so often, but these reports are anecdotal, in that they are subjective reports from individuals and there is no quantification of data.

From the scientific perspective, anecdotal reports may indicate an area of possible focus or attention, but these types of information have no scientific significance. Significance in science is based upon measurement or quantification.

The second type of information in scientific inquiry is the Pilot Study. These studies usually involve a very small sample of subjects (sometimes as small as one), and in such cases these studies of one subject are often called Anecdotal Studies. There is always some form of measurement involved, and this gives these types of studies a little more scientific significance and credibility than anecdotal reports.

The primary method we used to research the technology that eventually became the foundation of ABR psychoacoustic recordings was EEG Topographical Brain Mapping. This method gives a wealth of statistical information about brain state in the surface areas of the brain (the neocortex). As part of this research, we often conducted small anecdotal studies when I had developed a new aspect of psychoacoustic technology. And that is most of what you will find in this section.

I want to be very clear here. Although Pilot Studies offer some modicum of quantification, we would be remiss if we jumped to conclusions, and decided that the results experienced by anyone person, or a few persons, can be generalized to everyone. This is why the third form of scientific research is so important-the Controlled Study. In these types of studies, a large sample of subjects is vital. It is this sampling of data from a large pool of subjects that allows researchers to predict whether the same results experienced by one individual are likely to be experienced by others.

ABR's psychoacoustic technology was developed primarily, with a few exceptions, through a combination of clinical observation and Pilot Studies. In other words, we studied a small sample of subjects (via EEG) and then predicted possible effects. These effects were then observed in a clinical setting with a much larger group of persons-mostly in my psychotherapy office, in individual or group sessions, and by other therapists throughout the world. It is important, I think, to keep these distinctions in mind as you read over the studies and comments in this section.

Psychoacoustics is a growing field of interest both by laypersons, therapists and by medical and mental health professionals. It is my hope that by presenting this information in a scientifically accurate manner, this emerging technology of personal transformation will be served.





Theoretical Constructs of ABR Technology



What is Psychoacoustics?

Psychoacoustics, a newly emerging field of human potential technology, promises to radically affect human behavior through its study of sound, language, and music and their effects on the brain/mind. You will notice that we write brain/mind linked together. This is based on Dr. Carl Pribram's view of the brain and "the mind," which is that "the mind" is a process which runs parallel to physiological processes within the brain. Thus it is possible to have a brain without a mind, as in a cadaver, but it is not possible to have a mind without a functioning brain -- at least not the way we normally think of mental/emotional experience. (This is not to say that there may not be some aspect of consciousness which operates independently of brain processing, simply that brain processing is crucial to normal everyday experience.) In the following pages we would like to introduce some of the basic concepts in Psychoacoustics and discuss the research findings pertinent to ABR recordings.



Sound and Music

For centuries music and sound have been used for "healing" and transformation. From the guttural chanting of ancient shamans to the lofty Gregorian chants of the cathedrals, sound and music have played a central role in the culture of humanity. Only recently have we begun to understand the physiological effects of sound and music on the brain. In the following section we will discuss their background and ramifications in the technology of Psychoacousatics.

We know that music can play a crucial role in brain processing. The work of Dr. Lozanov in Bulgaria confirms this. He discovered that music at 60 beats per minute, as used in the Largo movements of Baroque music, increased alpha activity by 6% associated with relaxation and decreased beta activity (normal waking state) by 6%. Pulse slowed by an average of 4 divisions of mercury. Subjects reported a "relaxed awareness".

In a study conducted by Dr. Sue Chapman at a New York City Hospital, the response of premature infants to music was studied. One group listened to Brahms lullaby (stringed version) six times a day, while a control group listened to nothing. The group of infants who listened to Brahms gained weight faster, had fewer complications and were released from the hospital an average of a week earlier than those babies who did not listen to Brahms.

What happened?

From the perspective of Psychoacoustics it is very clear. The architecture of the music, the rhythm and the timbre all created changes in brain processing through stimulation of the auditory pathways. These changes in the infants' brain processing greatly reduced their stress levels, thereby allowing their natural "healing" abilities to engage more efficiently than those in the control group.

The vibratory nature of sound and music creates a language which the body and mind understand. By language we do not mean "words," we mean "information." Indeed our word "information" comes from the Latin stem "informare" which means form or shape. From this perspective, music is a process of changing acoustic shapes and forms. If you were to look at the shapes and forms made by music you would see organic shapes reminiscent of mountains, valleys, trees, microorganisms and galaxies. The study of the shapes created by music and sound is called Cymatics, and has resulted primarily from the work of two men: Dr. Hans Jenny and Dr. Guy Manners. These researchers have collected numerous photographs of cymatic patterns which are made by sending sound vibrations through a metal plate covered with various resonant mediums, such as iron filings or sand. In some cases a tonoscope was used which records the patterns electronically. These studies show that music does indeed create a kind of language.

As with all language there is the concept of syntax. Normally syntax is a term reserved for written or spoken speech. It refers to the order in which words appear. If you change the order of words in a sentence, you change the meaning. This concept can also be extended to music. If you scramble the notes in a musical composition, you have changed it. The order of the information (notes) in music is just as crucial as the order of the information (words) in speech. When we think of sound and music as a language, or sets of information, we see new possibilities for understanding its effects on the brain/mind.

Music also has a profound impact on emotional problems and learning difficulties, as shown by the work of Dr. Tomatis in France. It is quite interesting how Dr. Tomatis got involved in his work with Sound Therapy. Somewhat early in his studies, he was called to a Benedictine monastery outside of Paris. The monks were depressed and were having trouble eating and sleeping. Dr. Tomatis was asked to find the cause of their ailments.In the course of his explorations, he discovered that the abbey had recently acquired a new abbot. The new father prided himself on being a modern man, and considering the Gregorian chants too medieval, he had ordered the monks to stop chanting.

Without knowing it, the abbot had taken away a primary form of brain stimulation for the monks. When Dr. Tomatis had the abbot reinstate the chanting, the depression lifted, and the monks were fine. This incident led Dr. Tomatis to study the effects of sound on the brain. In the course of his work, he discovered the effects of high frequencies on brain processing, emotional problems and blocks to learning.

At the Beckman Research Institute in Duarte, California, noted geneticist Dr. Ohno has ascribed musical notes to each of the 6 amino acids that make up the DNA code. Dr.Ohno has been able to transcribe the "music" made by the DNA helixes in living things. These sound patterns are not random, but actually make melodies. In one of his experiments, he transcribed the melody of a particular type of cancer. The melody had an uncanny similarity to a piece of music written in the 17th century—Chopin's Funeral March. Had Chopin "intuited" this melody from nature itself?

The importance of sound and music on brain processing is significant to the field of Psychoacoustics. By looking at the changes in brain states and behaviors elicited through sound, language and music, we can more fully understand these phenomena. Psychoacoustics is in its infancy, and we are only now beginning to understand the precision in which sound patterns can affect brain and cellular processes. It is an exciting time, and ABR is committed to the scientific exploration and understanding of Psychoacoustic theory and technology.



The use of language in ABR tapes is highly specific and is based upon the work of Milton Erickson, M.D., and the use of Transformational Grammar. Transformational Grammar is concerned with the "transformations" or changes in grammar native speakers of a language make when speaking. Transformations can facilitate altered states of awareness.

By using language within the context of this grammar, we are able to "speak" to the unconscious mind in its own language. This language of the unconscious mind is characterized by its use of metaphors. Metaphors have much deeper and more global associations than cognitive type (normal) sentences. For instance, if someone were to say to you, "I love you," you would know what was meant. However, if a metaphor was used, the communication would have more depth. For instance, "I love you as a river must love the sea, rushing, pushing ever onward.... I am drawn to you." This is the essence of poetry, and it is also a means by which we can greatly accelerate change. Fundamental changes in behaviors and attitudes will occur with the use of metaphors. By speaking to the unconscious mind on its own terms, we can increase the depth of mental and emotional processes.



Acoustic stimulation of the brain is accomplished via the auditory pathways which are routed into the auditory cortex. The Reticular Activating System (RAS) is also activated through the spinoreticular fibers located in laminae 5 through 8 of the spinal gray matter. While the RAS is not equipped to deal with specific sensory information, it is well suited for controlling arousal. Any strong stimulation, such as sound, activates the RAS, thereby diffusely activating the entire cerebral cortex, the seat of "higher" thought.

In a study released by Ted Melnechuk, Director of Research Communications at the Institute for the Advancement of Health, there was a direct relationship between music and the opiate-like endorphins released by the brain. Many incidences of highly pleasurable and "healing" experiences have been reported by the users of our recordings. Therefore, it may be inferred, through observation, that many of our tapes increase endorphin levels within the body. Clinical data in support of this hypothesis is not available at this time, though studies are presently underway.

In his book The Psychobiology of Mind-Body Healing, Ernst Rossi, M.D., shows how language can create specific physiological changes within the body. He suggests that there is a structure within the brain which "translates" language into physiological response. This structure, called the hypothalamus, is located in the mid-lower level of the brain. It communicates via nerve fibers with the higher cortex and the various organs and systems of the body. When information enters the hypothalamus from the cortical areas of the brain, the hypothalamus "transduces" the energy of the nerve impulses from the cortex into the "language" of the body. Therefore, the use of language in highly specific ways, as found in some ABR recordings, results in distinct physiological responses.

Another way of viewing the effects of psychoacoustic stimulation on brain physiology is through Pet Scans. In Pet Scans, brain activity is measured by the consumption of glucose (a simple sugar used by the brain for fuel). Through Pet Scans it has been shown that language activates the left hemisphere, while music activates the right. When music and language are combined, both hemispheres are stimulated. One of the principles of ABR technology is that an increase in neurological activity in the brain, increases the opportunity for change to occur.

The Neuromap is a 24 channel Electroencephalogram (EEG) which measures brain wave activity via a microprocessor (see Brain Wave Primer). The 24 channels of information are color coded to give a topographic map of the brain and the various areas of brain wave activity. The particular form of Neuromapping used by ABR was created by Dr. Ed Wilson, M.D., at the Colorado Center for BioBehavioral Health. When the Neuromap was used to study a subject listening to the ABR tape, Wave Form, a radical shift of dominant alpha brain activity indicating a significant altered state of consciousness was observed. Also noted was a powerful increase in theta activity associated with deep states of relaxation. It should be noted that Wave Form has been used extensively by numerous clinicians for stress and pain management.



ABR uses a variety of sound and musical patterns depending on the behavioral effects desired. In general, we are looking to create brain wave states in the area of alpha and theta, and sometimes delta. This allows the brain/mind to be more receptive to incoming information which may or may not be expressed in the form of language.

ABR technologies rely on numerous auditory strategies to generate specific brain wave patterning. Threshold Electronic Pulsations (generating specific brain wave patterns by pulsing a given frequency at the desired cycles per second), frequency modulations (in which tones are quickly oscillated between two polarities), musical patterning, tonal architecture and hemispheric spanning (spacing key tones within the stereo field) are just a few of the more frequently used devices. In addition, differential signaling is occasionally used to affect brain entrainment. In differential signaling two different signals are sent to the brain simultaneously. The tones are most often set in a musical ratio, which are often associated with healing abilities.

In addition, we employ frequencies to stimulate the sensory processing centers of the brain during crucial moments of "high learning potential." Such frequencies may be electronically or naturally generated. In some instances, the brain may be cross-laterally stimulated through the right and left hemispheres to increase cerebral processing, directing sound patterns and frequencies across the corpus collosum. These various elements are mixed together into a tonal matrix in which many of the sounds and frequencies are mixed subliminally (just at the threshold of hearing). The final effect is a complex web of auditory stimulation which maximizes brain processing and learning.


Research Data Anecdotal

We have received numerous reports from listeners of our recordings that titles such as Wave Form produce relaxed states of awareness. They have reported floating feelings, deep muscular relaxation, the reduction of perceived pain, profound feelings of peace and calmness, and pronounced increases in pleasurable states. These anecdotal reports have been physiologically explained by studies such as the Neuromap-ping described previously.

A number of persons with chronic health problems have reported vast improvements through use of the Psycho-Immunology series. These patients have included persons with cancer, endocrine system imbalances, lupus, stress fatigue syndrome, etc. It would appear that any problem exacerbated by stress would be helped by these recordings. (This refers to the stress patterns revealed by the anecdotal reports and by the premises of Psychoacoustics as they apply to the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems. These are inferences and are not based, at this time, on controlled studies.)

Author Robert Anton Wilson, reported in Magical Blend magazine that he gave Psycho-Immunology to a movie producer under tremendous stress. After a week of listening to the recording, the producer said he "felt like a new man", and "as if [he] had taken a vacation." Furthermore, Wilson reported that he found the recording more stimulating and effective than brain machines. This is another effect reported anecdotally from a number of listeners. Psycho-Immunology seems to create all types of transformational experiences. Theoretically this may be explained by the broad range of frequency stimulation as well as by increased bodily awareness. Usage of the recordings seems to increase sensitivity to internal sensations.

Ambient Support was originally designed for use by students and teachers in the classroom, though it is now being used by an increasing number of professionals to increase productivity. Anecdotal reports have been outstanding. Dr. Gwen Moore of the Northside Learning Lab in Atlanta, Georgia, reported that Ambient Support increased ease of learning, reduced stress and increased motivation. In a subjective survey of 42 graduate and undergraduate students, 90% reported reduced anxiety and stress around learning, 87% reported less test anxiety, 85% reported increased motivation and 84% reported improved memory. (Note that this was not a controlled study, and the figures are not significant from a purely scientific standpoint. They merely indicate subjective impressions, and as such, may be highly variable.)


Physiological Studies

Physiological measurements include such things as heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, blood chemistry, etc. PET SCANS and EEG's have already been mentioned earlier. ABR has focused most of its current physiological studies on the results of EEG's such as Neuromapping and a Computer Data Retrieval System called HAL-4.



The brain emits electrical potentials or patterns throughout its entire structure. These electrical patterns or brain waves have been clinically shown to correlate with various mental and emotional states. The standard means for measuring brain wave activity is with an EEG (see Brain Physiology). There are some disagreements in the field as to where different brain states overlap, but the following schema is generally accepted. There are six different classifications starting with delta, the lowest level, to K-complex, the highest level.

Delta is in the 0.5 - 4.0 HZ range and it is associated with deep sleep with no awareness of the self. However, certain individuals with highly developed nervous systems have reported a deep stillness and a relaxed awareness of the self while in delta. Such persons have usually cultivated their nervous systems through such practices as yoga, meditation, etc.

The next level of brain wave activity is theta, which is in the 4 - 8 HZ range. Theta is associated with deep relaxation and profound imaging experiences such as dreams, visions, etc. Furthermore, theta is often linked with the phenomena of self-healing.

From theta we move up into alpha which is associated with mild relaxation. Alpha is in the 8 -14 HZ range, and is often used in such accelerated learning methods as Superlearning. In addition, alpha is utilized in certain types of self-help methods such as cybernetics.

Beta is what we normally think of as waking state, and is in the 14 - 23 HZ range. High beta is in the 23 - 33 HZ range and is associated with heightened states of mental activity. K Complex is in the 33 HZ range, usually occurs in short bursts, and is associated with "aha" experiences when there is sudden insight. Recent research indicates that the brain may generate activity in the neocortex as high as 150 HZ. These brain states are grouped together as high and super high beta.

By targeting certain brain states, it is possible to greatly assist internal activities such as learning, self-healing, the exploration of altered states, etc. While the measurement of brain activity is of paramount importance in our grasp of neurophysiology, the actual mental/emotional and spiritual experiences of the individual are also crucial to our understanding of the brain/mind interface.



The following information is a very basic overview of frequencies as the term is used in Psychoacoustics. All sound vibration is comprised of wave patterns. The diagram below shows a typical sine wave (which is the most common wave form used in Psychoacoustics).

A cycle is the distance between peaks. Frequencies are usually read in cycles per second or HZ (Hertz). The higher the frequency the higher the pitch. The normal range of hearing for most people is in the 20 - 20,000 HZ range. A few people hear tones above 20,000 HZ, though it is very rare for someone to hear frequencies below 20HZ.

When frequencies are used to "entrain" the brain into an altered state there are numerous possible strategies. An important thing to remember is that most people cannot hear the lower frequencies that are typical of brain wave patterning. For instance, low alpha (with its attendant relaxation) is in the 8 - 9 HZ range, far below the 20HZ threshold of hearing.

One way to get around this is through Differential Signaling. In Differential Signaling two different tones are sent to the brain. For example let us say we send 200 HZ to the left ear and 208 HZ to the right. The difference between the signals is 8HZ which is what the brain will "entrain" to. We also use musical ratios which have been found to be quite effective at altering awareness.

Another strategy, more commonly used on ABR recordings8, is to pulse low tones at specific rhythmic pulsations to "entrain" the brain into the desired state. Thus we may pulse any given frequency or tone at 10 cycles per second to achieve an increase in alpha activity. An advantage to this form of entrain-ment is that a person with ear deafness in one ear can still get the "entrainment", whereas in Differential Signaling they would not.

In terms of brain processing and body image, there is one aspect to frequencies of vital interest in Psychoacoustics. By using different frequencies, it is possible to resonate different areas of the body, thereby activating or triggering emotional/mental activity associated with those areas. The applications to psychotherapy and disciplines involving the body/mind interface are very exciting.





Auditory Stimulation and the Brain


The brain PET scan facsimiles below indicate that language is processed primarily in the left hemisphere, while music is processed in the right hemisphere of the brain.

When music, sound and language are combined, as on ABR CDs, we are able to stimulate greater neurological activity in both brain hemispheres.

Glucose is the brain's primary source of energy and an increase in glucose consumption indicates an increase in neurological activity. The reddish areas below show the areas of highest brain activity as measured by glucose consumption.

When the brain is exposed to language, the left hemisphere shows greater activity, while music stimulates the right hemisphere. When the brain hears music, sound and language combined, both hemispheres are activated.



Alpha and Theta Response to a Programmed Auditory Stimulus: Acoustic Brain Research Tapes and Entrainment

Bruce Harrah-Conforth, PhD Indiana University




As early as 1934 Adrian and Matthews showed that the resting rhythms of the brain could be made to assume the frequency of a photic stimulus ("entrainment"). It was not until 1960, however, that any similar tests using an auditory stimulus were done (Neher: 1960).

In recent years a growing number of tapes and devices have been produced which claim to use the principle of entrainment for the purposes of enhancing performance, stress reduction, creativity, and a host of other byproducts.

The aim of this study was to ascertain and analyze the efficacy of various "brain entrainment" audio tapes produced by Acoustic Brain Research. These tapes, it is claimed, assist in stimulating alpha and theta brain waves in test subjects by alerting the Reticular Activating System (RAS) to incoming signals and activating the cerebral cortex.

Techniques by which ABR claims to facilitate such changes in the brain are: Threshold Electronic Pulsations, frequency modulations, musical patterning, tonal architecture and hemispheric spanning.


Methods and Materials

The subjects were 15 volunteers, 6 females and 9 males, aged 25 - 38, all of whom were considered to be in good health. The test environment consisted of having the subjects lie on a bed in a dark room, with their eyes shut throughout the session. Three electrodes were placed "left occipital to left parietal." A baseline reading was established with regard to the normal relaxed state of each subject.

The subject was then equipped with a set of stereo headphones through which four different ABR tapes were played: Sound Meditation, Wave Form, Creativity and Intuition, and Movement with Body Sync, as well as four tapes of pink noise not by ABR. The average time of each tape was 20 minutes. During each session the subject's production of Beta, Alpha, and Theta waves were monitored. Sensitivity settings during the tests ran from 3 uvpp through 100 uvpp. Brain wave readings were also taken at 5 minute intervals following the stimulation for a total period of 20 minutes.


ABR Tapes

The ABR tapes used are described by ABR in the following manner:


Wave Form

The Wave Form tape is designed with the intent of producing the theta state for relaxation. The tone generated is based on the Principle of the Perfect Harmonic Fifth.


Sound Meditations

Designed to be a meditative experience the Sound Meditation tape utilizes the Pythagorean (pure) tone, Mongolian chanting, as well as Tibetan bowls and bells.


Creativity and Intuition

This tape utilizes complex tonal matrices and cross lateral stimulation as well as including subliminal messages designed to increase creativity.


Movement with Brain Sync

ABR claims that this tape facilitates brain synchronization and its subliminal messages aid on the clearance of emotional energies and forgiveness. The sounds used consist of oceans, birds, whales, and soothing music.



As expected, subjects produced a "classic" alpha driving response when they closed their eyes, even though no auditory stimulus was present. A baseline was then established for their resting brain. Immediate visual and auditory indications showed that the ABR tapes increased beta activity, decreased alpha activity, and increased theta action.


Influence of Pink Noise

There was no significant difference between resting wave production and wave production under pink noise stimulation (0.05).


Influence of ABR tapes

All ABR tapes produced an initial decrease of the Alpha band, while two ABR tapes (Sound Meditation and Wave Form) produced increases of the Theta band.



In order to compare each subject's susceptibility to auditory stimulation the significance of ABR stimulation was only considered if it was more than >0.05 above the noise response. The findings seemed to indicate a link between an altered EEG response and ABR tapes that could not be evidenced with the pink noise alone.

Four ABR tapes were tested. All four ABR tapes produced significant changes in the theta band in 19 out of 32 (59%) sensitivity frequencies. Two ABR tapes succeeded in this regard more than 68% of the test time (13 out of 16). All four ABR tapes showed alpha attenuation (20 out of 32 or 62%), and three tapes showed beta enhancement (9 out of 32 or 28%).

In comparison, the test tape, which included only pink noise as its sound source, showed no significant theta enhancement, some alpha enhancement (37%), and no beta change.

It is suggested that in this test with these subjects the ABR tapes did assist in the alteration of the subjects' brain wave bands.


Subjective Correlates

Perhaps the most difficult task to undertake is to assign psychological meaning to physiological change. Although the actual meanings of brain waves are not understood, research has permitted a general consensus to be adopted with regard to these states. Cade (1979), building upon the work of Lesh (1970), was able to formulate a relationship between objective and subjective states. His findings indicated, and have been verified by other researchers, that various brain wave states correspond to various psychological ones.

The beta state (13-30 Hz) corresponds to our normal waking consciousness.

The alpha state (8-13 Hz), appears to be the equivalent of relaxation and concentration.

Theta waves (5-7 Hz), are such that they seem to reflect a deeply internalized state, deep relaxation, a sense of quieted emotions, and the production of hypnogogic imagery.

Delta waves (.5-4 Hz), are those which are usually associated with sleep or other similarly unconscious states.



The relationship of test subject's subjective reporting of their experiences using the ABR tapes and the pink noise tapes to their brain wave indications appears to verify the findings of researchers such as those mentioned above.

While little relaxation occurred during the pink noise sessions, subjects reported feeling marked changes in their bodily sensations during the ABR Wave Form and Sound Meditation tapes. This seems to correspond to an increased production of theta waves and an attenuation of alpha waves experienced by subjects while using these tapes.

Among the subject's comments were such typical descriptions as "I lost all sense of my body," "I felt like I was flying," "I was deeply relaxed," I felt like I was out of my body," etc. There appeared to be no significant difference in reports by either sex or age.

If these findings are substantiated by future research, it follows that the ABR tapes will be shown to be effective means by which a variety of psycho-physiological conditions (stress, anxiety, self-esteem, etc.) may be altered.

While no cause and effect is implied in this research, the high incidence of similar reports among subjects seems to indicate that further studies are necessary to investigate this realm.

No theories about alpha or theta activity can be inferred from this study, but the study of ABR tapes to both subjective and objective analysis should prove rewarding.


Tom Kenyon


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